Researching of chemical and biological elements in No-Till agrotechnology
The richness of civilization is the soil which 99% of it produces food. There is more than 95% of the gene pool of living matter in the soil of planet. In modern conditions, there is a problem of rational use of soil as place for natural formations (edafotops) which are the most important components of biogeocenosis. The relevance of this work is that the soil as nutrient in the biosphere performs a unique function. The most important parameter is the fertility of the soil, which determines the basic properties of terrestrial ecosystems: efficient production and stability. Estimation of the main factors of fertilityed edafotop is a mandatory element of environmental monitoring. The purpose of this work is to study the dynamics of acidity and assessment of humus content in soil with sand and character changes on the number of microorganisms of major ecological-trophic groups and quantitative analysis of microalgae with typical chernozem processing and No-Till. Scientific novelty of results. For the first time the complex estimation of features humus formation in typical horizons layer was conducted and the dependence population of the complex microbial edafotop farm was installed on the territory farming systems of Semenivka district of Poltava region. For research were selected 17 soil samples in Semenivka district (Poltava region). The soil samples were selected in the localities which use standardized methods and techniques. The objects of study are samples chernozem typical from edafotop with different processing technology, in particular after making defekat sugar production, selected on the territory of the farm agrocenosis. Subject of research is dynamics of humus, microbiota and algae in soils that are traditionally handled by biotechnology and No-Till, and the impact a defekat of sugar production on the soil acidity. As a result of research settled the following tasks: 1) it was selected the samples of chernozem with varying technology soil processing; 2) it was estimated humus content by Tyurin (titrimetric) and acidity of soil samples by potentiometry; 3) it was investigated the feasibility of using a defekate after sugar production as fertilizer; 4) it was found the number of complex microbial studied soils; 5) it was set the factors in the formation of complex microbial soil; 6) it was set of environmental measures aimed at restoring of soil fertility. Soil samples were prepared for analysis by standard procedure. During the research was used a method of potentiometry to determine pH (degree of acidity of the soil solution). The concentration of humus titrimetric determined by using of chromium mixture and Mohr's salt (I. V. Tyurin method). Preliminary preparation of soil for microbiological analysis was performed by dispersing. For quantifying soil microorganisms was used the method of planting soil slurry into solid peptone-agarnutrient media and Zvyagintsev's scale. Statistical analysis of the results of research was carried out using MS Excel. The practical significance of the results is the scientific substantiation of ecological and economic profitability of introducing technology No-Till in Ukraine. This agrotechnology will preserve and restore the fertile layer of soil (improving its chemical, physical and biological properties, increasing content of organic matter in the soil), reduce or eliminate erosion of soil (no need to spend extra money to solve this problem), accumulate and retain the moisture in the soil, which in turn will reduce dependence the crop on climatic conditions and increase crop yields. It Is established that the use of No-Till system increased content humus, increased the number of microorganisms and soil microalgae, which can significantly affect the fertility of chernozem.
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