Agrizem as a new 4-dimensional polygenetic formation
Morphological (horizontal and vertical profiles of soils), micromorphological (mainly, anisotropism of aggregates and pores), physical properties (structure, density, differential porosity and their transformation for an appreciable length of time – time profiles), features of formation of descending (preferential) and ascending waterstreams were investigated. Chernozems (typical, ordinary, southern) were objects of the research. In the article the results of comparative researches of the soils which are in various conditions of use – from absolutely reserved virgin soil to variants in industrial and experimental conditions are stated. On a virgin soil there are aggregates of mainly isometric roundish form. On an arable land anisotropic lumps (blocks) of the wrong form, the size, as a rule, more than 10 (20) mm, and silting structure dominate. At tillage characteristic stability for a virgin soil pore spaces is broken, the length of a time of one diameter decreases. Pores A are filled with microaggregates and thindispersed not aggregated material. On a virgin soil the density at its analysis in vertical and time aspects throughout 30 years remained a constant. On an arable land, since 30 to depth of 60–80 cm density authentically above (it, most likely, forrow bottom). Under the influence of long tillage mobility of thindispersed parts increase, its reorientation to a place and periodic descending migration from horizon Н (A) in horizon of Hp (АВ1) is observed. Essential feature of ploughed up and especially irrigated soil in comparison with the virgin consists in distinct display of the plastic deformation which are at the bottom of raised consolidation of soil. The structurally-modular structure of soils in the conditions of long arable land in comparison with a virgin soil considerably changes: the quantity agronomical valuable fraction, its water stability, mechanical durability decreases. On an arable land preferential streams of a moisture (or a failure filtration on large pores) are formed. The executed researches of soils in the conditions of a virgin soil and an arable land allow to ascertain that the mode of receipt and the moisture expense, aeration, growth of roots, exchange processes and in general ecological and productive functions on these objects are various. On an arable land soilformation process gets other orientation. As a result of researches essential distinctions between natural and ploughed up soil are established for a long time, and distinctions have appeared so essential that have allowed to confirm – under the influence of long agricultural use the natural soil is transformed in agrizem, has essentially other properties and modes and can quite be called as new polygenetic (natural-anthropogenous) formation. Till now existence of agrizem remains a debatable question and that it was really recognised new soil and has got «the citizenship» rights additional proofs are necessary. Features of agrizem as new soil in comparison with a virgin soil: anisotropism, bimodality of pore spaces, consolidation of soil aggregates, seasonal and long-term dynamics of density and properties, infringement of convertibility of soils owing to loss and labilization of organic substance, occurrence of new horizontal, vertical and time profiles, aridization and biodiversity reduction. Agrizem loses ability to restore inherent in it modal, characteristic for natural analogue, parametres. Owing to strengthening of spatial heterogeneity for agrizem gradual transition from continuality to step-type behaviour of a soil cover, and as a whole – local easing of sod – with reference to chernozems – soil formation process is characteristic. Agrizem as the new type of soil demands reflexion in the nomenclature and classification, the account in division into districts and the differentiated system of use. Polygenetic is a formation principal cause of agrizem. Agrizem – a product of natural, economic (industrial, technological) and social factors. Today the person and its activity on the earth becomes the leading factor of formation of new soils.
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