Diagnostic problems of elementary soil processes and profile-differentiated soils of the Precarpathian region

  • I. S. Smaga Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University
Keywords: elementary soil procesess, Pre-Carpathians, brounish podzolic soil, sod-podzolic soils, genesis, diagnostic criteria, the gross chemical composition, humus status


Present condition, scientific concepts and ways of further development of diagnosis problem of elementary soil processes and genetic nature profiled-differentiated gleyed soils of the Pre-Carpathian region, known as brownish-podzolic, brownsoil-podzolic and sod-podzolic, based on stable indicators of soil properties are studied. Eluvial-illuvial differentiation nature of the soil profile of the studied soils is founded. The aim of research was to develop criteria for the diagnosis of elementary soil processes and genetic nature profiled-differentiated soil deposits of Ciscarpathia and discovering of the parameters of the relevant indicators of soil properties. The soil profile with his characteristic set of genetic horizons and morphological characteristics can result from taking place of both various set (kit) of ESP and of varying intensity of individual processes (complex ESP). Formation of genetic soil type is caused by the course of the profile forming (main) process with the possible participation of several (related) processes. An important condition for the diagnostic determination of profile-differentiated soils in the Ciscarpathia is the search for reliable diagnostic criteria for basic elementary soil processes (ESP) which play a crucial role in the genesis and determine their macromorphological characteristics: lessivage, podzolisation, gleying and eluvial-gleying processes. Diagnostic criteria of the elluvial processes resulted in gross chemical composition of the soil (molecular ratio), particle size distribution (loss sludge) and mineralogy silt fraction (montmorillonite content) were tested. The criteria for establishing genetic origin of the Pre-Carpathian soils, podzolization and eluvial-gley processes detection and their possible parameters were suggested. Followed the impact of the prevailing development of individual creating profile elementary soil processes (podzolization, eluvial-gley and gleying) by laboratory simulation modeling of soil regimes that are conducive to them (washing, water stagnant and contrast) for evaluative indicators of acid-base soil buffer and made the conclusions about the possibility of these processes isolation. Eluvial-illuvial differentiation of Ciscarpathia typical soils is coursed by passage of profile forming process of podzolisation (acid hydrolysis, podzolic) and related from the group of eluvial - eluvial-gleying process and lessivage. They are diagnosed by the gross grain and chemical composition of the soil and the content of montmorillonite. Brown soil forming processes have a significant impact on the formation of humus status and physical and chemical properties of the studied soil. Substantiated differences forming the group composition of humus and fractional composition of humic acids of soils formed underbrownsoil formation processes from the sod soils type (the ratio of humic acids to fulvic acid, gumatcalcium content, optical density of humic substances). Advantages and disadvantages of using quantitative identification criteria - profile humus accumulation factor in the genetic diagnosis of soil type are analyzed. In the conditions of wash and contrasting modes of moisture, causing the priority development processes of podzolisation and  gleye- eluvial respectively a similar trend of formation of acid-base buffer capacity of soil and similar parameters of evaluating indicators within the soil profile are observed. It is impossible to separate the processes of podzolisation and  gleye- eluvial using the indicators of acid-base buffering. Describing of profile structure, morphological and genetic traits of genetic horizons, the profile distribution of acid-base buffering indicators (even without the use of criteria based on gross chemical and grain composition and content of clay minerals) help to clear identify brownish-podzolic gley soils of Ciscarpathia.


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Smaga, I. (2016). Diagnostic problems of elementary soil processes and profile-differentiated soils of the Precarpathian region. Fundamental and Applied Soil Science, 17(1-2), 40-48. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/041604