Methodology of effective monitoring of a soil cover (on the basis of the analysis of 25-years European experience)
The purpose of the article is to state the most essential methodological aspects of monitoring of a soil cover which is spent in the Europe during more than 25 years, to approach the Ukrainian model of monitoring to European and to formulate requirements to the organization of monitoring in Ukraine which will guarantee its efficiency. According to the European concept under monitoring the existential system of supervision over soil properties on constant platforms with use of the wide program of indicators with the purpose of creation of information-analytical databases, divisions into districts and allocation of problem territories, the forecast of soil development (including by means of pedotransfer modelling), a correcting of the contents and intensity of agricultural activity, planning of soil-saving actions, improvements of granting process to farmers, activization of work with mass media and in other purposes means. Advantage has regular distribution of points which meets the requirements of geostatistic analysis and geoinformatics is better and is better considers spatial features of soil characteristics which are important in mapping. Organizational principles of construction of monitoring: independence of departments influence; simple 2-unit structure (regional laboratory – the centre of information-analytical), the coordinated and approved normative estimated base; coordination with supervision over other components of an environment; financing from the state budget; regular informing on results power structures and the public. Monitoring is meaningful only when with its help a long number of the equidistant supervision received mainly in a regular network is formed. Only under these conditions probably objective estimation and the reliable forecast of negative changes in soils, and also contours of territories with problem characteristics are precisely defined. Accordingly means for their elimination are economically spent. Monitoring should be spent at the greatest possible quantity of definitions of display soil properties in modes in situ and on-line. Mainly by results of monitoring a soil cover in the majority of the European countries bases of a new agrarian policy protection of an environment and active support of soil-saving technologies to which interest increases in the European countries have been certain is. In the European countries the atmosphere of assistance to monitoring was generated and it is considered, that without high-quality information system about a soil cover to create comfortable conditions of a life and a clean environment is impossible. In Ukraine it is necessary to organize monitoring of a soil cover on the basis of the newest program, mathematical tool, and cartographical bases, agreed with the European experience. In connection with intensive use the soil cover of Ukraine quickly changes, the increasing urgency is got with processes of degradation. Therefore the control of changes and over its base formation of corresponding programs on stay of degradation and reproduction of soil fertility – very actual problem.
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