Atmospheric precipitation on the soils of Belarusian Polesye
The article considers the influence of atmospheric precipitation in the form of dust and dry residue with rain and snow in the formation of technogenic situations in the soils of the Belarusian Polesye. Anthropogenic impact on the soil is formed as a result of entering into the soil of technogenesis product, is made up of atmospheric precipitation in the form of dust and rain, as well as key components of chemical reclamation (Ca, Mg, K, N, P) of soil. Based on field research and data of the Hydrometeorological Service of Belarus there was generalized the information and disclosed the regularities of dust deposition and mineral residue precipitation in Belarusian Polesye. Mapping the anthropogenic impact on the soil was performed using software packages ESRI ArcView and ESRI ArcGIS. It is set a noticeable spatial heterogeneity in the level of anthropogenic impact on the soil of the Belarusian Polesye, ranging from 6,3 t/ha per year in the district of Gantsevichi to 17,6 t/ha in Malorita district, Brest region. There is a general tendency of increasing of the given parameter in the direction from north-east to south-west of Polesye. The level of anthropogenic impact is largely dependent on natural (soil properties and structure of the soil) and economic (level of development and specialization of industry and agriculture) factors. The lowest value of the anthropogenic impact (less than 7,5 t/ha per year) is characteristic for areas with underdeveloped industry and a high proportion of drained peat soils: Gantsevichi, Oktyabrsky, Narovlya and Zhitkovichi. For the western part of the Belarusian Polesye (Malorita, Stolin, Ivanovo, Berezovsky, Drogichin areas) other than large areas of sandy soils, characterized by increased loads on agropochvy (12,1 or more t/ha per year), the largest contribution falls on the organic fertilizers. Technogenic situation in the soils was estimated based on the amount of annual agrotechnogenic load on the soil, air emissions from stationary sources and the level of radioactive contamination, formed as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result, we allocated favorable, satisfactory, conflict, tension, and critical situation. Favorable technogenic situation is typical for soils under forests and within specially protected areas (national parks and nature reserves) with anthropogenic load of less than 1 t/ha, not contaminated and distant from industrial centers. Such conditions correspond to 15 % of the Belarusian Polesye near major rivers and their tributaries in the region (the area between the Dnieper and the Sozh, the middle flow for the Pripyat and its tributaries Sluch, Yaselda, Ubort). A satisfactory situation has developed for 28,5 % of the territory, mainly within the northern part of the Pripyat Polesye due to a moderate level of anthropogenic pressure, in part – in the border of forest and wetland areas due to contamination with radionuclides. The conflict situation is typical for the northern part of Brest and Mozyr Polesye, on the right bank of the Dnieper and Berezina rivers, as well as in the area between Pina and Goryn rivers (27,7 %). In the southern part of the Brest Polesye, as well as in the countryside and along the Goryn river valley there is a tense situation (22,2 %), due to high anthropogenic pressure and intensive agricultural activities, in the latter case – also complicated by radioactive contamination. Critical man-made situation (7 %), which is observed in the south-east of Polesye, is due to high levels of radioactive contamination within the Polesye State Radiation Ecological Reserve and adjacent areas, despite the relatively low levels of air and agrotechnogenic pollution.
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