The evolution of podzolized and regraded chernozems in Eastern Upland Wooded Steppe of Ukraine and the ways of their development
It is indicated that podzolized and regarded chernozems in moderately humid and arid zones of Left-bank Wooded steppe with HTC 1,2–1,0 (within the valleys of the Sula and Oskil rivers) occur in high watersheds along right bedrock banks of the valleys, adjoining or being included into wooded refugiums. Being formed by the grove biogeocenosis, they have high rates of fertility. The morphological research of natural podzolized chernozems profiles showed, that the upper humus slightly-eluviated horizon, densely interweaved by roots, has coarse agronomically valuable structure, loose composition, dark-grey colour, that indicates high content of humus. It is mostly favoured by the biologically active, rich in calcium ground litter and the pristinity of soil texture. The general capacity of the humus profile is not less than 100 cm. While brining natural soils into tillage some changes of soil development conditions arise. They are: hydrothermic conditions, secondary carbonate enrichment (regradation), loosening of illuvial horizon. Under mechanical tillage the granular structure changes into a pulverescent and cloddy one, the topsoil becomes lighter because of humus loss, though the humus profile becomes 10–20 cm deeper. The analytical results indicate the sufficient differences in physicochemical and agrochemical characteristics between forest podzolized chernozems and their regradated analogs in tillage. Natural soils contain 5,7–6,5 % of humus in upper 0–35 cm layer, and up to 10,0 % in 0–15 cm layer. They also have considerable resources of hydrolyzable nitrogen. In agrogenic soils the humus content is up to 3,6 %. The humus is of a humate type both in podzolized and regarded soils. The smallest proportion of Сh.a./Сf.a is in the lower layer of humus eluviated horizon of forest soils. The level of humus loss by agrogenic soils in humus slightly-eluviated layer fluctuates from 37 % to 44 %. Dark-grey and grey forest soils lose more than half of humus content, typical chernozems – nearly 30 %, ordinary chernozems – 20 %. Regraded analogs are inferior according to the hydrolyzable nitrogen content. Positive evolutional changes in tillage, such as acidity reduction, bases saturation growth, illuvium destruction, didn’t yield expected results – resistance to degradation processes. For the development of agrogenic soils it is necessary to implement flexible complex systems of husbandry with minimal intensity of tillage, adapted to the landscape, bringing the culture of husbandry closer to natural conditions. Promising is the implementation of soil protection technologies with the maximum use of freak produce of plant growing. The integrity of soil composition and biologically active layer of mulch create the conditions, close to virgin ones, that lead to the transition of soil to natural non-degradation conditions without losing its productive functions.
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