Genesis, diversity and ecology of urban soils (for example the park «Feofania», Kiev)

  • Yu. G. Tyutyunnik Institute of Evolutionary Ecology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: soil diversity, urbanozem, urbopedogenesis, soil ecology

Abstract

In the paper the theoretical problems of the study of soils in urban areas have been considered. It is justified the notion urbopedogenesis as the process of increasing the diversity of the soil under the influence of urbanization. The main types of urbansoils of park «Feofania» and its environs have been studied and described (Kiev). The major factors and processes of soil cover degradation in the park due tohuman activity have been identified. The main types of soils of the megapolis and its environs are the following. Ekranozem – the soil of roads with an artificial covering. Not all soil scientists agree with distinguishingof such soil category. However, the tendency to see the road as a special category of soils in the modern soil science takes place. Urbanozem andindustriozem – the soils of residential areas and industrial zones, respectively. Their distinctive feature is a genetic soil horizon «urbik». It consists of compacted products of municipal and building human activity (urbanozem) and their manufacturing activity (industriozem). The soil of dumps and technozem: forming in waste (municipal and industrial). They are characterized by high toxicity, including the gas release such as NH3, H2S, CS2, CH4, methylated forms of mercury. Culturozem – soil of parks, botanical gardens, oases created by man. They are distinguished by powerful artificially created humus horizon and increased nutrient reserves. Reсreazem,replantozem and сonstruсtozem – soil created by man for the purpose of reclamation and improvement of the soil cover of the city (mainly in the gardens and park landscapes, on lawns, in the houses adjoining areas). Acephalozem – soil resulting from the construction activities, but without artificial material (dug, redeposited, piled up). Pyrogenic soils – formed as a result of thermal effects on the natural soil. Soil with destroyed mesofauna and microbial pool. Have an artificial horizon from the ashes. Rammed soil – formed by surface mechanical stress (transport wheels, soles of the feet). They have compacted structures, impaired (deterioration) in water-air regime. Agrozem – soil of farm land and plots. In the cities it is found mainly in the districts of individual buildings under the gardens. According to the degree of disturbance of the ecological functions of soil we have placed the studied soils in this order: ekranozem> industriozem> urbanozem > soil dumps and teсhnozem ≈constructozem > replantozem > recreazem > culturozem > acephalozem > agrozem > pyrogenic soil > rammed soil.

References

Aleksandrovsky, A. L., Boitsov, I. A., Krenke, N. A., 1997. Pochvi i kulturniy sloy Moskvi: stroenie, istoriya razvitiya, geografiya [Soil and cultural layer in Moscow: structure, development history, geography]. Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Geographical Series. 3, 82–95 (in Russian).
Bezuglova, O. S., Gorbov, S. N., Morozov, I. V., Nevedomskaya, D. G., 2012. Urbo-pochvovedenie [Soil Science of Town]. Publisher of Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (in Russian).
Gerasimova, M. I., Stroganova, M. N., Mozharova, N. V., Prokof’eva, T. V., 2003. Antropogennie pochvi: genesis, geografiya, rekultivatsiya: Uchebnoe posobie [Anthropogenic soils: genesis, geography, reclamation: Tutorial]. Publisher "Ojkumena", Smolensk (in Russian).
Gorodskaya sreda Kharkova. Geograficheskii analiz, samoochischenie zemel’, vozmozhnie vliyaniya na zdorov’e: Kollektivnaya Monografiya, 1994 [Urban environment Kharkov. Geographical analysis of pollution, self-cleaning land, the possible health effects: Collective Monograph]. Kharkоv (in Russian).
Gruzdev, M. V., 1991. Gorodskie pochvi, ih osobennosti i opit kartografirovaniya (na primere g. Yaroslavlya) [Urban soil characteristics and experience kratografirovaniya (for example, the city of Yaroslavl)]. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 3, 103–111 (in Russian).
Kazdim, A. A., 2006. Tehnogennie otlozheniya drevnih y sovremennih urbanizirovanih territoriy: paleoekologocheskiy aspekt [Man-made deposits of ancient and modern urban areas: Paleoecological aspect]. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)
Kurbatov, A. A., Kurbatova, A. S., Bashkin, V. N., et al., 2003. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po otsenke gorodskih pochv pri razrabotke gradostroitelnoy I arhitekturno-stroitelnoy dokumentatsii [Methodological guidance on the evaluation of urban soils in the development of urban planning and architectural and construction documents]. Moscow (in Russian).
Lebedeva, I. I., 2011. Vozmozhnosti vklyucheniya pochv i pochvoobrazuyuschih porod Moskvi v obschuyu klassifikatsionnuyu sisteme pochv Rossii [Possible inclusion of soils and soil-forming rocks of Moscow in the general classification system of Russian soils]. Soil Science. 5, 624–628 (in Russian)
Mozharova, N. V., 2010. Pochveniy pokrov gazonosnih territoriy [Soil cover-bearing areas]. Soil Science. 8, 1001–1011 (in Russian)
Prokof’eva, T. V., Varava, O. A., Sedov, S. N., Kuznetsova, A. M., 2010. Morfologicheskay diagnosticka pochvoobrazovaniya v antropogenno-izmenennih poimah rek na territorii Moskvi [Morphological diagnosis of soil formation in the anthropogenically modified floodplains in Moscow]. Soil Science. 4, 399–411 (in Russian).
Prokof’eva, T. V., Martinenko, I. A., Ivannikov, F. A., 2011. Sisitematika pochv i pochvoobrazuyuschih porod i vozmozhnisti ih vklyucheniya v obschuyu klassifikatsiyu [Systematics of soils and soil-forming rocks and their possible inclusion in the general classification]. Soil Science. 5, 611–623 (in Russian).
Prokof’eva, T. V., Poputnikov, V. O., 2010. Antropogennayu transformatsiya pochv parka Pokrovskoe-Streshnevo (Moskva) i prilegayuschih zhilih kvartalov [Anthropogenic transformation of soil Park Pokrovske-Streshnevo (Moscow) and the surrounding residential neighborhoods]. Soil Science. 6, 748–758 (in Russian).
Shestakov, I. E., Eremchenko, O. Z., Fil’kin, T. G., 2014. Kartografirovanie pochvennogo pokrova gorodskih territoriy na primere g. Per’m’ [Mapping land cover in urban areas by the example of the city of Perm]. Soil Science. 1, 12–21 (in Russian).
Stroganova, M. N., Agarkova, M. G., 1992. Gorodskie pochvi: opit izucheniya i sistematiki (na primere pochv yugo-zapadnoi chasti g. Moskvi) [Urban soils: a learning experience and systematics (for example, soil south-western part of Moscow)]. Soil Science. 7, 16–24 (in Russian).
Stroganova, M. N., Rappoport, A. V., 2005. Antropogennie pochvi botanicheskih sadov krupnih gorodov yuzhnoi taigi [Anthropogenic soil botanical gardens of large cities of the southern taiga]. Soil Science. 9, 1094–1101 (in Russian).
Tyutyunnik, Yu. G., 1991. Identifikatsiya, struktura i klassifikatsiya landshaftov urbanizirovannih territoriy [Identification, structure and classification of landscapes of urbanized areas]. Geography and Natural Resources. 3, 22–28 (in Russian).
Tyutyunnik, Yu. G., 1995. O suschnosti urbanizirovannogo landshafta [On the essence of urban landscape]. Geography and Natural Resources. 4, 149–156 (in Russian).
Tyutyunnik, Yu. G., 2014. Raznoobrazie pochv urbanizirovannogo lanshafta [Variety of soils urbanized landscape]. Biosphere. 6, 2, 187–195 (in Russian).
Vasenev, V. I., Anan’eva, N. D., Makarov, O. A., 2012. Osobennosti ekologicheskogo funktsonirovanya konstruktozemov na territorii Moskvi I Moskovskoi oblasti [Features konstruktozemov ecological functioning on the territory of Moscow and Moscow region]. Soil Science. 2, 224–235 (in Russian).
Urusevskaiya, I. S., Matinyan, N. N., 2005. Antropogenno-preobrazovanie pochvi ostrovnih monastirei taezhno-lesnoi zoni Rossii [Anthropogenically transformed soils island monasteries taiga forest zone of Russia]. Soil Science. 9, 1069–1079 (in Russian).
Zazovskaya, E. P., 2007. Paleourbanozemi Gnezdovskogo landshaftno-arheologicheskogo kompleksa [Paleo-urbanozemy of landscape of Gnezdovo and archaeological complex. In: Gnezdovo. Results of comprehensive studies of the monument: Festschrift]. 183–188. Alfaret, Moscow (in Russian).

Abstract views: 43
PDF Downloads: 77
Published
2014-06-06
How to Cite
Tyutyunnik, Y. (2014). Genesis, diversity and ecology of urban soils (for example the park «Feofania», Kiev). Fundamental and Applied Soil Science, 15(3-4), 64-73. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.15421/041418