Genesis, diversity and ecology of urban soils (for example the park «Feofania», Kiev)
In the paper the theoretical problems of the study of soils in urban areas have been considered. It is justified the notion urbopedogenesis as the process of increasing the diversity of the soil under the influence of urbanization. The main types of urbansoils of park «Feofania» and its environs have been studied and described (Kiev). The major factors and processes of soil cover degradation in the park due tohuman activity have been identified. The main types of soils of the megapolis and its environs are the following. Ekranozem – the soil of roads with an artificial covering. Not all soil scientists agree with distinguishingof such soil category. However, the tendency to see the road as a special category of soils in the modern soil science takes place. Urbanozem andindustriozem – the soils of residential areas and industrial zones, respectively. Their distinctive feature is a genetic soil horizon «urbik». It consists of compacted products of municipal and building human activity (urbanozem) and their manufacturing activity (industriozem). The soil of dumps and technozem: forming in waste (municipal and industrial). They are characterized by high toxicity, including the gas release such as NH3, H2S, CS2, CH4, methylated forms of mercury. Culturozem – soil of parks, botanical gardens, oases created by man. They are distinguished by powerful artificially created humus horizon and increased nutrient reserves. Reсreazem,replantozem and сonstruсtozem – soil created by man for the purpose of reclamation and improvement of the soil cover of the city (mainly in the gardens and park landscapes, on lawns, in the houses adjoining areas). Acephalozem – soil resulting from the construction activities, but without artificial material (dug, redeposited, piled up). Pyrogenic soils – formed as a result of thermal effects on the natural soil. Soil with destroyed mesofauna and microbial pool. Have an artificial horizon from the ashes. Rammed soil – formed by surface mechanical stress (transport wheels, soles of the feet). They have compacted structures, impaired (deterioration) in water-air regime. Agrozem – soil of farm land and plots. In the cities it is found mainly in the districts of individual buildings under the gardens. According to the degree of disturbance of the ecological functions of soil we have placed the studied soils in this order: ekranozem> industriozem> urbanozem > soil dumps and teсhnozem ≈constructozem > replantozem > recreazem > culturozem > acephalozem > agrozem > pyrogenic soil > rammed soil.
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