Physico-chemical determinant parameters in the color of vertisolization and tirsification processes

  • J. M. Recio Espejo
  • C. Borja Barrera
  • F. Díaz del Olmo
  • F. Borja Barrera
Keywords: soil color, vertisolization, tirsification, Andalusia, Spain


A statistical analysis is carried out on the influence that certain physico-chemical parameters exert on tirsification and vertisolization pedological processes that occur under certain geomorphological conditions in Andalusia region (Spain). Both processes occur on a parent material with high contents in smectitic clays, massive and uniform and contrasting climatic conditions where periods of humidity and those of drought  alternate. Chromic Vertisol (tirsificated) versus Calcium Vertisol (vertisolizated) (FAO, 2015) shows a greater interrelation between parameters given its greater weathering. Organic carbon controls a large part of its physical-chemical processes where the lateral washing of salts and carbonates together with manganese, always in a lower concentration than iron, play a definitive role in the blackening of its horizons. The chemical fertility is always low and  the geomorphological conditions seems to account for its agricultural capacity.


Borja, F., Diaz del Olmo, F., Recio, J. M., Borja, C. (2010). Procesos de Tirsification y Tierras Negras en el litoral occidental de Cádiz. Interpretación Paleogeográfica de la secuencia Holoceno medio-superior. Cuaternario y Arqueología: Homenaje a Francisco Giles Pacheco. 187–193 (in Spanish).
Clemente, L. (1978). Tierras Negras Andaluzas (Vertisol) sobre sedimentos de terrazas del Guadalquivir. Anal. Edaf. Agrobiol., 37, 461–470 (in Spanish).
Dearing, J. A. (1999). Environmental magnetic susceptibility: using the Bartington MS2 system 2nd. Edi. Chi. Publ. Kenilworth, United Kingdom.
Díaz del Olmo, F., Recio Espejo, J. M. (1991). Lagunas y áreas lacustres continentales de Andalucía occidental. Cuadernos de Geografía, 7(I), 25–36 (in Spanish).
Duchaufour, Ph. (1975). Edafología. Edit. Toray-Masson.Barcelona, 476 pp (in Spanish).
Duchaufour, Ph. (1977). Pedologie.I: Pedogenesse et clasification. Masson et Cie. Paris (in French).
F.A.O. (1977). Guía para la descripción de perfiles de suelos. FAO, Roma, 70 pp (in Spanish).
F.A.O. (2015). World reference base for soil resources 2014. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations. Roma, 192 pp.
Guitián, F., Carballas, T. (1976). Técnicas de análisis de suelos. Edit. PicoSacro, Santiago, 288 pp. (in Spanish).
Huget del Villar, E. (1944). The tirs of Marocco. Soil Science, 57, 313–339.
M.A.P.A. (1986). Métodos de análisis del Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Public. Secretaría General Técnica, Madrid (in Spanish).
Mehra, O. P., Jackson, M. L. (1960). Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. 7th National Conference on Clays and Clay minerals, Washington, 317–327.
Munsell, C. (1990). Munsell Soil Color Charts. Koll Morgen Instrument Corporation. Maryland (EE. UU.).
Olsen, S., Cole, C., Watanabe, F., Dean, L. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USA. United States Department of Agriculture, 939, Washington D.C., 19 pp.
Pinta, M. (1971). Spectrometrie d´absorption atomique. Ed. Masson et Cie, Paris, 793 pp (in French).
Recio, J. M., Gil, J., Medina, M. (1988). Basin closed and vertisol formation in Rincón lagoon (Andalusia, Spain). Catena, 15, 407–416.
Recio, J. M., Sandoval, M., Diaz, F., Borja, C., Borja, F., Ubera, J. L. (2017). Characterization of tirsification soil weathering processes: the case of Los Lirios wetland, Guadalquivir basin, Sevilla, Spain. Chilean Journal of Agriculture Research, 77(4), 406-412. DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392017000400406.
Recio, J. M., Díaz del Olmo, F., Serrano, A., Borja, C. (2019). Determinant physical-chemical parameters for the black color in tirsification processes. Geobotanic, soil and ecological studies of forest biogeocenoses of the steppe zone: history, present and perspectives. Proceedings of the International scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Professor A. P. Travleyev. Dnipro, Ukraine, 18–19.
Soil Survey England and Wales (1982). Soil Survey laboratory methods. Technical monographs nº6. Harpenden (England), 83 pp.
Sims, J. R., Haby, V. A. (1971). Simplied colorimetric determination of soil organic matter. Soil Sci; CXII, 137–141.
Torrent, J., Barrón, V. (2008). Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Methods Soil Analysis, Mineralogical methods, chapter 13, 367–385. Edit. SSSA Book series 5. DOI: 10.2136/sssabookser5.5.c13.
USDA (1973). Diagnóstico y rehabilitación de suelos salinos y sódicos Edit. Limusa (México), 172 pp (in Spanish).

Abstract views: 25
PDF Downloads: 22
How to Cite
Recio Espejo, J. M., Borja Barrera, C., Díaz del Olmo, F., & Borja Barrera, F. (2019). Physico-chemical determinant parameters in the color of vertisolization and tirsification processes. Fundamental and Applied Soil Science, 19(2), 40-44.